Eighth Grade Vocabulary

01.  Ambiguous (adjective) - Vague or unclear due to having more than one possible meaning or interpretation.

        Example: "Paul reminded John that he owed him one hundred dollars."  (Who owes whom?  Who is "he, and who is "him"?  Does Paul owe John, or does John owe Paul?)

02.  Image (noun) - An image is a word that appeals to or stimulates one or more senses.  Images can be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory.

        Example of images in a sentence:  "The officer groaned, yanked open the door, and stomped into the damp, dingy room."  ("groaned" is an auditory image; "yanked" is a visual image; "stomped" is a visual, auditory, and tactile image; "damp" is a tactile image; and, "dingy" can be a visual image.)

03.  Redundant (adjective) - Unnecessary repetition of word or idea.

04.  Trite (adjective) - Overused or commonplace.

05.  Cliche (noun) - A trite (overused) expression.

        Examples of clichés:  "kept me on the edge of my seat"..."left me hanging"..."in the middle of nowhere"..."take it one game at a time"...raining cats and dogs"..."from the bottom of my heart"

06.  Distraught (adjective) - Worried, anxious (Mitty & Wind)

        Example: "The mother was distraught when she realized her daughter had not yet returned home."

07. Bickering (verb/adjective) - Arguing (Mitty)

        Example: "The two reporters were bickering over who would interview the coach first."  (verb)

        Example: "The bickering reporters were finally silenced by their editor." (adjective)

08. Pandemonium (noun) - Wild excitement, chaos (Mitty)

        Example: "When the home team scored, the stands erupted in pandemonium."

09. Bedlam (noun) - Extreme confusion or disorganization (Mitty)

        Example: "After the accident bedlam ruled the scene."

10. Somber (adjective) - Gloomy, sad, serious (Durango)

        Example: "The mood throughout the country was somber following the surprise attack."

11. Apprehension (noun)/Apprehensive (adjective) - Dread, anxiety (Durango)/Worried, anxious (Mice)

        Example: "The pilot felt apprehension when he noticed the fuel gauge was near empty."

12. Dismal (adjective) - Dreary, bleak (Durango)

        Example: "The dismal shop was dark and damp."

13. Avert - (verb) - To turn away, to prevent (Breakfast)

        Example: "The student averted his eyes because he did not want to be called on."

        Example: "The government is trying to avert another terrorist strike on civilians."

14. Dissipate - (verb) - To scatter or disperse, to make disappear (Breakfast)

        Example: "The thick smoke slowly dissipated into the sky."

15. Mundane - (adjective) Common, ordinary (Breakfast)

        Example: "The singer's life was more mundane than it was glamorous."

16. Oblivion - (noun) Forgetfulness, lacking awareness (Winner)

        Example: "It's almost as if he is in a state of constant oblivion."

17. Perpetual - (adjective) Continual, continuous, without end (Winner)

        Example: "His mouth is in perpetual motion."

18. Vexed - (adjective/verb) Irritated, annoyed (Heart & Wind)

        Example: "I was vexed by his negative reaction to my suggestion." (adjective)

        Example: "His response to my suggestion vexed me." (verb)

19. Sagacity - (noun) Wisdom (Heart)

        Example: "We were impressed by the speaker's apparent sagacity."

20. Audacity - (noun) Boldness, nerve (Heart & Wind)

        Example: "Their attorney had the audacity to call my client a liar."

21. Derision - (noun) Scorn, ridicule (Shard & Mice)

        Example: "This past season the Brewers were often the object of derision among fans."

22. Stealthy - (adjective) Sly, sneaky, secretive (Heart)

        Example: "The stealthy coyote approached its unwary prey."

23. Bliss - (noun) Extreme joy (Spoon & Wind)

        Example: "Filled with bliss after hearing about her promotion, the assistant manager called her husband to tell him the news."

24. Epitaph - (noun) An inscription, generally on a tomb, that serves a memorial to the deceased. (Spoon)

        Example: "The epitaphs of all the police and firemen who perished in the World Trade Center tragedy should portray them as true heroes."

25.  Impudent - (adjective) Disrespectful, rude, impertinent (Red Chief, Shard, Bird)

        Example: "The reporter's impudent question during the President's press conference showed a lack of class."

26.  Surreptitious - (adjective)  Stealthy, furtive, secretive (Red Chief)

        Example: "The husband's surreptitious effort to throw a surprise birthday party for his wife was so successful, she did not expect it at all."

27.  Gaunt - (adjective) Very thin, bony (Wind)

        Example: "He was so gaunt, you could almost see his ribs."

28.  Haughty - (adjective) Excessively proud, arrogant (Wind)

        Example: "Once they achieve stardom, some celebrities become haughty."

29.  Jubilant - (adjective) Filled with joy (Wind)

        Example: "The team was jubilant after its upset victory."

30Agape - (adjective) Wide open (Wind)

        Example: "After he saw his score on the unit test, his mouth was agape."

31Blasphemy - (noun) Contemptuous act or utterance concerning God. (Wind)

        Example: "Brady accuses Drummond of blasphemy."

32.  Heathen - (noun/adjective) Someone who does not acknowledge God Judaism/Christianity. (Wind)

        Example: "Colonists considered Native Americans to be heathens."

33.  Agnostic - (noun/adjective) Someone who doesn't believe in God but does not deny God's existence as there is no proof either way. (Wind)

        Example: "Henry Drummond is actually an agnostic, not an atheist."

34.  Dogma - (noun) A belief taught to be true, never to be questioned. (Wind)

        Example: "Almost every religion includes a certain amount of dogma."

35.  Atheist - (noun) One who denies or rejects the existence of a Supreme Being. (Wind)

        Example: "Many atheists believe it's wrong to say the Pledge of Allegiance in schools because it makes a reference to God."

36.  Heretic - (noun) One who rejects or breaks away from an accepted system of beliefs. (Wind)

        Example: "When he switched from the Republican to the Democratic party, many of his former colleagues viewed him as a heretic."

37.  Cynical - (adjective) Suspicious or skeptical of others' motives. (Wind)

        Example: "Many Americans have become cynical about politicians' promises."

38.  Messiah - (noun) A savior (Wind)

        Example: "In some religions people believe that a messiah will come to earth and save humanity."

39.  Ominous - (adjective) Threatening, dangerous, menacing (Wind)

        Example: "A long, ominous shadow appeared behind him."

40Miffed (adjective) Upset, irritated (Wind)

        Example: "Some fans are miffed at the team for raising ticket prices."

41Benign - (adjective) Kind, gentle  (Wind)

        Example: "Though he appeared stern and mean, the coach was really a benign person."

43.  Superfluous - (adjective) Unnecessary, more than enough (Wind)

        Example: "Having already made his point, the rest of the politician's speech was superfluous."

44.  Nettled - (adjective) Upset, aggravated (Wind)

        Example: "The player was nettled due to the coach's constant criticism."

45.  Pious - (adjective) Religious, devout or observant, spiritual (Wind)

        Example: "His colleagues considered him a pious leader of the congregation."

46.  Preposterous - (adjective) Ridiculous, ludicrous (Wind)

        Example: "The student's recommendation to put a soda machine in the lunch room is preposterous."

47.  Bewildered - (adjective) Confused, puzzled, perplexed, baffled (Wind, Mice, Bird, & Treasure)

        Example: "The candidate was so bewildered by the reporter's question that he didn't know how to answer it."

48.  Pariah - (noun) Outcast (Wind)

        Example: "Because he had turned in his friend to the principal, the other students treated him as a pariah."

49.  Animosity - (noun) Hostility, ill will, antagonism (Wind)

        Example: "There is a great deal of animosity between the union and management in these labor negotiations."

50Treacherous - (adjective) Dangerous (Wind)

        Example: "The explorer set off on an extremely treacherous journey through the jungle."

51Fervent - (adjective) passionate, zealous (Wind & Bird)

        Example: "The protester was fervent in her opposition to the death penalty."

52.  Glower - (verb) Glare (Wind & Flies)

        Example: "The referee glowered at the coach who had protested his call."

53.  Pertinent - (adjective) Related, relevant (Wind)

        Example: "The judge said that astrology was not pertinent to the prosecution's case."

54.  Irrelevant - (adjective) Not related to, not pertinent (Wind)

        Example: "The lawyer's statement that his client was ill was irrelevant."

55.  Pagan - (noun/adjective)  Heathen; someone who does not believe in God of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam.  (Wind)

        Example: "European explorers considered inhabitants of the "New World" pagans."

54.  Gall - (noun) Nerve, boldness, audacity (Wind)

        Example: "The President had the gall to lie to Congress about his role in the cover up."

56.  Irreconcilable - (adjective) Unable to coexist or accommodate each other (Wind)

        Example: "The couple broke up because of irreconcilable differences."

57.  Scrutinize - (verb) Examine closely or carefully (Wind)

        Example: "The attorney scrutinized the document before signing it."

58.  Incontrovertible - (adjective) Can not be disputed or argued against (Wind)

        Example: "The fact that she did not pass the test because she did not study at all is incontrovertible."

59.  Melange - (noun) - A mixture (of elements that do not go well together) (Wind)

        Example: "The punch, a melange of grape juice and chocolate milk, was awful."

60Exultant - (adjective) Jubilant, filled with joy (Wind)

        Example: "Mr. Taft was exultant after he won the Wisconsin lottery."

61.  Indignant - (adjective) Angry or upset over a perceived injustice (Harjo, Wind, & Bird)

        Example: "After she failed to get the leading role in the play, the young actress was indignant since she felt her audition had been superior to the performances of other candidates."

62.  Incredulous - (adjective) Disbelieving, finding it difficult or impossible to believe (Wind)

        Example: "I was incredulous when he told me the story of his abduction by aliens."

63.  Innocuous - (adjective) Harmless (Wind)

        Example:  "Although people were shocked by his comment, it was actually rather innocuous."

64.  Vanity - (noun) Ego, sense of self-importance, conceit, arrogance (Wind)

        Example: "Her incredible vanity did not let her admit even her most minor mistakes."

65.  Alliteration - (noun) Repetition of the initial consonant sound in two or more words

        Examples: "beautiful butterfly"   "fiery furnace"   "calm and controlled"

        Note: "cracked ceiling" is not alliteration (same letter but different sounds)

        Note: "silliness in cyberspace" is alliteration (different letters but same sound)

66.  Consonance - (noun) Repetition of final consonant sound in two or more words

        Examples:   "The best man won"     "Take a look"    "Love it or leave it"

        Note: It is possible to find both alliteration and consonance in a word combination.

        Examples:   "man in the moon"   "talking on the phone can be fun"

67.  Assonance - (noun) Repetition of the non-initial vowel sound in two or more words

        Examples:   "vowel sound"    "The night was fine"    "It's a good book"

        Note: Assonance is not rhyme; rhyme is not assonance!

        Note: It is possible to find both alliteration and assonance in a word combination.

        Examples: "Flying can be frightening."   "Shopping can be a shocking experience."

68.  Inane - (adjective) Extremely foolish or unwise, stupid

        Example: "The destruction of the tropical rain forests in the Amazon is inane"

69.  Galleon - (noun)  A large Spanish ship of war or trade of the 15th and 16th centuries. (Highwayman)

        Example: "The divers were disappointed that they could find no treasure on the sunken Spanish galleon."

70Rapier - (noun) A short sword with a thin, sharp blade (Highwayman)

        Example: "The fatal wound appeared to have been made with a weapon similar to a rapier."

71.  Onomatopoeia - (noun) A word that represents a sound

        Example: "When he turned the key, the engine went vvvrrrrrrrmmmmmmmm."

72.  Spendthrift - (noun) A person who spends carelessly and/or impulsively (Money)

        Example: "My sister is a spendthrift, which is why she constantly asks me to lend her money."

73.  Miser - (noun) A a person who hoards money or material possessions (Money)

        Example: "The most famous miser is literature is probably Scrooge."

74.  Concurrent - (adjective) Occurring at the same time, simultaneous (Concurrence)

        Example: "It is not easy to watch television, talk on the phone, and study for a test concurrently."

75.  Stigma - (noun) Mark or reputation of shame or disgrace (Enemy's Eyes)

        Example: "During the Nazi reign of terror they thought having Jews wear a yellow Star of David would be a stigma for them."

76.  Furtive - (adjective) Sly, sneaky, secretive  (Bird)

        Example: "The suspect furtively crept around the side of the building, tryi8ng to stay out of sight of the police."

77.  Repent - (verb)  To regret one's actions or views and try to change one's beliefs or behaviors to make up for those errors or sins.  (Harjo)

        Example: "The convicted robber vowed to repent for his crime and never break the law again."

82.  Jest - (verb)  Joke  (Harjo)

        Example: "At first I thought he was jesting about giving me a twenty per cent raise, but he wasn't."

83.  Defiled - (adjective/verb) Spoiled, polluted, made impure (Harjo)

        Example: The raw sewage that the city dumped into the lake defiled the clean water."

84.  Solemn - (adjective) Serious, grave  (Harjo)

        Example: "The vacation trip took on a solemn mood because of the sudden wave of illness."

86.  Deplorable - (adjective)   Regrettable  (Harjo)

        "The fact that he lied under oath is deplorable."

87.  Obstinate - (adjective)  Stubborn  (Harjo)

        Example: "I don't think I've ever met a more obstinate, pig-headed individual."

88.  Perplexed - (adjective/verb) Confused, bewildered (Harjo)

        Example: "Even after the expert tried to explain what stem cell research is, I was still perplexed."

89.  Rehabilitate - (verb)  To improve or restore one's status or privilege or rank.  (Harjo)

        Example: "Prisons have not been very successful in their attempts to rehabilitate convicts."

90.  Solvent - (adjective)   Able to meet financial obligations  (Harjo)

        Example: "It took him many years to overcome his massive debts and become solvent."

91Tactful - (adjective) Able to say or phrase something in an acceptable way without offending (Harjo)

        Example: "Although the doctor wanted to scream at his patient for not following his directions, he took a more tactful approach."

93.  Taciturn - (adjective) Silent, uncommunicative (Bird)

        Example: "My grandfather was so incredibly taciturn that nobody else in the family even tried to talk to him."

94.  Prudent - (adjective) Careful, cautious (Bird)

        Example: "The investor took a prudent approach to his stock investments."

95.  Malevolent - (adjective) Evil wicked, malicious (Bird)

        Example: "His opponent's malevolent look made Rocky shiver."

96.  Nebulous - (adjective) Hazy, indistinct (Bird)

        Example: "After being rescued, her memory of the accident was nebulous."

97.  Contentious - (adjective) Argumentative, filled with strife or conflict, hostile (Bird)

        Example: "It was obvious that the relationship between the divorced couple was still contentious."

98.  Auspicious - (adjective)  Fortunate, having good luck (Bird)

        Example: "Winning the lottery was the most auspicious event of his life."

99.  Placid - (adjective)  Calm, serene (Bird)

        Example: "The lake was so placid that I leaned back in the boat and dozed off."

100. Tacit -  (adjective) Implied, unspoken but understood (Bird)

        Example: "He gave tacit approval for me to pursue my research on a voluntary basis."

101. Umbrage - (noun) Offense (Bird)

        Example: "The judge took umbrage at the district attorney's implied criticism of his ruling."

102. Inevitable - (adjective) Unavoidable, unable to prevent (Bird)

        Example: "The student's failing grade on the test was inevitable since he did not study at all."

103. Acquiesce - (verb) To comply with or go along with (Bird)

        Example: "The young boy acquiesced to his mother's request to clean his room."

104. Elucidate - (verb) To explain or clarify  (Bird)

        Example: "Because the professor's explanation was unclear, I asked him to elucidate."

105. Affluent - (adjective) Wealthy, extremely rich (Bird)

        Example: "We looked at a home in an affluent new subdivision."

106. Amiable - (adjective) Friendly  (Bird)

        Example: "He was one of the most popular kids in school, probably because he was such an amiable person."

107. Acrimonious - (adjective) Hostile, bitter, antagonistic (Bird)

        Example: "The siblings' rivalry had become increasingly acrimonious."

108. Complacent - (adjective) Self-satisfied (Mice & Bird)

        Example: "Since the Wildcats had already beaten ULS twice, the team grew dangerously complacent."

109. Mollify - (verb) Appease (Mice & Bird)

        Example: "He was so upset about not making the team that no one could mollify him."

110. Expunge - (verb) Delete, remove (Bird)

        Example: "After three years a driver's traffic offenses are expunged from his record."

111. Temerity - (noun) Boldness, audacity (Bird)

        Example: "The girl had the temerity to accuse the minister of lying to her."

112. Exhilaration - (noun) Elation, extreme joy (Bird)

        Example: "The dinner guests were filled with exhilaration when the host announced his upcoming wedding."

113. Adamant - (adjective) Inflexible or unyielding in one's position or beliefs. (Bird)

        Example: "The Colonists were adamant in their demand to repeal the Stamp Act."

114. Vehement - (adjective) Intense, passionate conviction or emotion (Bird)

        Example: "Mr. Bach was vehement in his remarks that students follow the common Trust."

115. Devout - (adjective) Pious or observant (Bird)

        Example: "Though the pastor seemed a person of devout faith, some of his advice was unethical."

116. Impertinent - (adjective) Rude, insolent (Bird)

        Example: "The candidate's response to the reporter's question was impertinent."

117. Brevity - (noun) Briefness, of short duration (Bird)

        Example: "The speaker's address was perfect, characterized by clarity and brevity."

118. Purloined - (adjective) Stolen (Bird)

        Example: "The police referred to the incident with the stolen steak as the 'case of the purloined sirloin.'"

119. Commemorate - (verb)  To honor the memory of someone/something with a ceremony.

        Example:  "D-day commemorates the invasion that ended World War 2."

120. Morose - (adjective) Sullen, gloomy (Mice)

        Example:  "After the teams' fourteenth straight lost, the players and coaches were growing morose."

121. Dejected - (adjective) Depressed (Mice)

        Example:  "When he learned he had not successfully auditioned for the play, the young actor was dejected."

122. Aloof - (adjective)  Distant in one's relationships, indifferent (Mice)

        Example: "I don't like my boss because he is aloof and is, therefore, difficult to communicate with."

123. Belligerent - (adjective)  Hostile, contentious (Mice)

        Example: "His belligerent manner caused his colleagues to shun him, making him a pariah in the firm."

124. Retort - (verb) To reply angrily, to counter an argument (Mice)

        Example: "The pro-life speaker retorted to the statement by the previous speaker."

125. Affable - (adjective) - friendly, amiable  (Masks)

        Example:  "One reason he is so popular is that he's such an affable person."

126. Connoisseur - (noun) - A person who has expert knowledge in some field appreciates the highest quality.   (Shard)

        Example: "Some people are connoisseurs of fine wine, while others, like Mr. Georgeson, are connoisseurs of folk music."

127. Comply - (verb) - To agree to act upon a request.  (Shard)

        Example:  "When my parents ask me to clean my room, I usually comply."

128. Forage - (verb) - To search for food.  (Shard)

        Example: "Part of our training was to forage in the forest to see if we could survive."

129. Mock - (adjective) - False, fake.  (Shard)

        Example:  "Even though he already knew about the surprise party, his face showed mock shock."

130. Cower - (verb) - To huddle or crouch in fear.  (Shard)

        Example: "Gollum cowered from the blows that rained down on him."

131. Diligent - (adjective) - Industrious, working hard (Shard)

        Example:  He is one of the most diligent students I have ever had."

132. Despair - (noun) - feeling of hopelessness, lacking hope (Shard)

        Example:  Even in the most difficult times, one should not despair."

133. Insolent - (adjective) - rude, impudent, impertinent, disrespectful (Shard)

        Example:  "The reporter's insolent question during the President's press conference showed a lack of class."

134. Tedious - (adjective) - tiresome (Shard)

        Example: "Studying for vocabulary quizzes can be incredibly tedious."

135. Vigilant - (adjective) - watchful (especially for danger)  (Shard)

        Example: "Since 9/11 Americans have had to be more vigilant because of the threat of terrorism."

136. Spurn - (verb) - to reject in a scornful way (Shard)

        Example: "In Inherit the Wind, the townspeople spurned Bert Cates for his teaching of evolution."

137. Commiserate - (verb) - to sympathize with someone  (Shard)

        Example: "It was easy to commiserate with the players after they lost a heartbreaker in overtime."

138. Serene - (adjective) - calm, peaceful  (Shard)

        Example: "Relaxing on the beach and listening to the gentle ocean waves, I felt as serene as I ever had before."

139. Speculate - (verb) - to ponder, to guess (Shard)

        Example: "Many American citizens are speculating who will become the next President."

140. Feign - (verb) to pretend  (Shard)

        Example: "The teacher feigned surprise when all of her students got either an A or a B on the unit test."

141. Replica - (noun) a reproduction or duplicate  (Shard)

        Example: "I recently saw an exhibit of replicas of famous painting."

142. Frenetic - (adjective) - frantic  (Shard)

        Example: "The pace of the game was frenetic as the home team tried to overcome a 10 point deficit in the final two minutes of the game."

143. Trepidation - (noun) - fear, worry (Shard)

        Example:  "Because he had never spoken in front of such a large audience, he felt a great deal of trepidation."

144. Quell - (adjective) - to subdue, to end  (Shard)

        Example:  "Bert Cates tried to quell his rising nervousness as he waited for the jury's verdict."